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8 Ancient Greek Inventions That Forever Changed the World
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External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Representatives from the various Greek city-states competed in events such as a footrace of one circuit of the stadium, or about meters. When the Greek city states were warring, there was a truce to allow both participants and spectators to travel safely to Olympia.
Over the years, the games got larger, going from one day to five days in B. Longer footraces were added as were discus, javelin, boxing, pentathlon , wrestling and chariot racing. Winners received a crown of olive leaves. The Olympic Games were revived in , and are still going on today, but it will take another thousand years before they match the longevity of the ancient Greek version.
In his Histories , ancient Greek historian Herodotus described the first winches. They were wooden and used to tighten cables that supported a pontoon bridge that crossed the Hellespont during the Persian Wars in B. By the 4th century B. He described compound pulley systems is in his work Mechanical Problems , written during the third century B. Cranes, hoists and pulleys were used by the ancient Greeks in their building methods.
This ingenious device is attributed to the famous Archimedes of Syracuse to lift solid or liquid substances from one elevation to another. It was used to transfer water into irrigation ditches. The screw is turned by manual labor, cattle, a windmill or a motor. As the shaft turns, a volume of water is scooped up, then pushed up the tube by the rotating helicoid. The surface between the screw and pipe doesn't need to be perfectly watertight since any water leaking out of one section will be caught by the next lower section. The first lighthouse was attributed to Themistocles during the 5th century B.
It was located in the harbor at Piraeus, and was a column of stone with a fire at the top.
Later ancient Greek lighthouses included the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria , which was constructed during the reign of Ptolemy II - B. It has been estimated to have been over 10 meters ft in height, and was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Lighthouse of Alexandria was severely damaged by three earthquakes that occurred between AD and , and it was eventually abandoned. By , the last of the lighthouse's stones were used in other building projects.
In , French archaeologists discovered remnants of the lighthouse beneath Alexandria's Eastern Harbor. On ancient Crete, the Minoans were the first to use underground clay pipes for sanitation and water supply.
Forever Changed () - IMDb
Excavations at Olympus and Athens have revealed extensive plumbing systems for baths, fountains and personal use. Showers were connected to their lead pipe plumbing system. A shower room for female athletes is shown on an ancient Athenian vase, and a complex of shower rooms was found in a 2nd-century B. The invention of the astrolabe is attributed to Appollonius of Perga.
First used around B. Besides being used to identify stars or planets, it was used to determine latitude if you knew the local time, and vice versa.