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Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia. Bipolar disorder also known as manic depression involves abnormally "high" or pressured mood states, known as mania or hypomania , alternating with normal or depressed moods. The extent to which unipolar and bipolar mood phenomena represent distinct categories of disorder, or mix and merge along a dimension or spectrum of mood, is subject to some scientific debate. Patterns of belief, language use and perception of reality can become disordered e. Psychotic disorders in this domain include schizophrenia , and delusional disorder.

Schizoaffective disorder is a category used for individuals showing aspects of both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Schizotypy is a category used for individuals showing some of the characteristics associated with schizophrenia but without meeting cutoff criteria. Personality —the fundamental characteristics of a person that influence thoughts and behaviors across situations and time—may be considered disordered if judged to be abnormally rigid and maladaptive. A number of different personality disorders are listed, including those sometimes classed as "eccentric", such as paranoid , schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders; types that have described as "dramatic" or "emotional", such as antisocial , borderline , histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders; and those sometimes classed as fear-related, such as anxious-avoidant , dependent , or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

The personality disorders, in general, are defined as emerging in childhood, or at least by adolescence or early adulthood. The ICD also has a category for enduring personality change after a catastrophic experience or psychiatric illness. If an inability to sufficiently adjust to life circumstances begins within three months of a particular event or situation, and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated, it may instead be classed as an adjustment disorder.

There is an emerging consensus that so-called "personality disorders", like personality traits in general, actually incorporate a mixture of acute dysfunctional behaviors that may resolve in short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are more enduring. Eating disorders involve disproportionate concern in matters of food and weight.

Sleep disorders such as insomnia involve disruption to normal sleep patterns, or a feeling of tiredness despite sleep appearing normal. Sexual disorders and gender dysphoria may be diagnosed, including dyspareunia and ego-dystonic homosexuality. Various kinds of paraphilia are considered mental disorders sexual arousal to objects, situations, or individuals that are considered abnormal or harmful to the person or others. People who are abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful to themselves or others, may be classed as having an impulse control disorder, and disorders such as kleptomania stealing or pyromania fire-setting.

Various behavioral addictions, such as gambling addiction, may be classed as a disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can sometimes involve an inability to resist certain acts but is classed separately as being primarily an anxiety disorder. The use of drugs legal or illegal, including alcohol , when it persists despite significant problems related to its use, may be defined as a mental disorder. The DSM incorporates such conditions under the umbrella category of substance use disorders , which includes substance dependence and substance abuse.

Disordered substance use may be due to a pattern of compulsive and repetitive use of the drug that results in tolerance to its effects and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped. People who suffer severe disturbances of their self-identity, memory and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings may be classed as having a dissociative identity disorder , such as depersonalization disorder or Dissociative Identity Disorder itself which has also been called multiple personality disorder, or "split personality".

Other memory or cognitive disorders include amnesia or various kinds of old age dementia. A range of developmental disorders that initially occur in childhood may be diagnosed, for example autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder , and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , which may continue into adulthood.

Conduct disorder, if continuing into adulthood, may be diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder dissocial personality disorder in the ICD. Popularist labels such as psychopath or sociopath do not appear in the DSM or ICD but are linked by some to these diagnoses. Somatoform disorders may be diagnosed when there are problems that appear to originate in the body that are thought to be manifestations of a mental disorder. This includes somatization disorder and conversion disorder. There are also disorders of how a person perceives their body, such as body dysmorphic disorder. There are attempts to introduce a category of relational disorder , where the diagnosis is of a relationship rather than on any one individual in that relationship.

The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma

The relationship may be between children and their parents, between couples, or others. There already exists, under the category of psychosis, a diagnosis of shared psychotic disorder where two or more individuals share a particular delusion because of their close relationship with each other. Various new types of mental disorder diagnosis are occasionally proposed. Among those controversially considered by the official committees of the diagnostic manuals include self-defeating personality disorder , sadistic personality disorder , passive-aggressive personality disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Two recent unique unofficial proposals are solastalgia by Glenn Albrecht and hubris syndrome by David Owen. The application of the concept of mental illness to the phenomena described by these authors has in turn been critiqued by Seamus Mac Suibhne. The likely course and outcome of mental disorders varies and is dependent on numerous factors related to the disorder itself, the individual as a whole, and the social environment.

Some disorders are transient, while others may be more chronic in nature. Even those disorders often considered the most serious and intractable have varied courses i. Long-term international studies of schizophrenia have found that over a half of individuals recover in terms of symptoms, and around a fifth to a third in terms of symptoms and functioning, with many requiring no medication. While some have serious difficulties and support needs for many years, "late" recovery is still plausible. The World Health Organization concluded that the long-term studies' findings converged with others in "relieving patients, carers and clinicians of the chronicity paradigm which dominated thinking throughout much of the 20th century.

Around half of people initially diagnosed with bipolar disorder achieve syndromal recovery no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis within six weeks, and nearly all achieve it within two years, with nearly half regaining their prior occupational and residential status in that period. Less than half go on to experience a new episode of mania or major depression within the next two years.

Some disorders may be very limited in their functional effects, while others may involve substantial disability and support needs. The degree of ability or disability may vary over time and across different life domains. Furthermore, continued disability has been linked to institutionalization , discrimination and social exclusion as well as to the inherent effects of disorders. Alternatively, functioning may be affected by the stress of having to hide a condition in work or school etc. It is also the case that, while often being characterized in purely negative terms, some mental traits or states labeled as disorders can also involve above-average creativity, non-conformity, goal-striving, meticulousness, or empathy.

Nevertheless, internationally, people report equal or greater disability from commonly occurring mental conditions than from commonly occurring physical conditions, particularly in their social roles and personal relationships. The proportion with access to professional help for mental disorders is far lower, however, even among those assessed as having a severely disabling condition.


In terms of total Disability-adjusted life years DALYs , which is an estimate of how many years of life are lost due to premature death or to being in a state of poor health and disability, mental disorders rank amongst the most disabling conditions. Unipolar also known as Major depressive disorder is the third leading cause of disability worldwide, of any condition mental or physical, accounting for The total DALY does not necessarily indicate what is the most individually disabling because it also depends on how common a condition is; for example, schizophrenia is found to be the most individually disabling mental disorder on average but is less common.

Alcohol-use disorders are also high in the overall list, responsible for Schizophrenia causes a total loss of Panic disorder leads to 7 million years lost, obsessive-compulsive disorder 5. The first ever systematic description of global disability arising in youth, published in , found that among to year-olds nearly half of all disability current and as estimated to continue was due to mental and neurological conditions, including substance use disorders and conditions involving self-harm. Second to this were accidental injuries mainly traffic collisions accounting for 12 percent of disability, followed by communicable diseases at 10 percent.

Suicide , which is often attributed to some underlying mental disorder, is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adults under The predominant view as of is that biological, psychological, and environmental factors all contribute to the development or progression of mental disorders. Mental disorders are associated with drug use including: cannabis , [59] alcohol [60] and caffeine , [61] use of which appears to promote anxiety.

Risk factors for mental illness include a propensity for high neuroticism [65] [66] or "emotional instability". In anxiety, risk factors may include temperament and attitudes e. A number of psychiatric disorders are linked to a family history including depression, narcissistic personality disorder [68] [69] and anxiety. Statistical research looking at eleven disorders found widespread assortative mating between people with mental illness. That means that individuals with one of these disorders were two to three times more likely than the general population to have a partner with a mental disorder.

Sometimes people seemed to have preferred partners with the same mental illness. Thus, people with schizophrenia or ADHD are seven times more likely to have affected partners with the same disorder. This is even more pronounced for people with autism spectrum disorders who are 10 times more likely to have a spouse with the same disorder. In schizophrenia and psychosis, risk factors include migration and discrimination, childhood trauma, bereavement or separation in families, abuse of drugs, [73] and urbanicity.

In anxiety, risk factors may include parenting factors including parental rejection, lack of parental warmth, high hostility, harsh discipline, high maternal negative affect, anxious childrearing, modelling of dysfunctional and drug-abusing behaviour, and child abuse emotional, physical and sexual. For bipolar disorder , stress such as childhood adversity is not a specific cause, but does place genetically and biologically vulnerable individuals at risk for a more severe course of illness.

Social influences have also been found to be important, [77] including abuse , neglect , bullying , social stress , traumatic events , and other negative or overwhelming life experiences. Aspects of the wider community have also been implicated, [74] including employment problems, socioeconomic inequality , lack of social cohesion, problems linked to migration , and features of particular societies and cultures. The specific risks and pathways to particular disorders are less clear, however.

Nutrition also plays a role in mental disorders. Mental disorders can arise from multiple sources, and in many cases there is no single accepted or consistent cause currently established. An eclectic or pluralistic mix of models may be used to explain particular disorders. Biological psychiatry follows a biomedical model where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and experience. A common assumption is that disorders may have resulted from genetic and developmental vulnerabilities, exposed by stress in life for example in a diathesis—stress model , although there are various views on what causes differences between individuals.

Some types of mental disorders may be viewed as primarily neurodevelopmental disorders. Evolutionary psychology may be used as an overall explanatory theory, while attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context of mental disorders.

Psychoanalytic theories have continued to evolve alongside and cognitive - behavioral and systemic-family approaches. A distinction is sometimes made between a " medical model " or a " social model " of disorder and disability. Psychiatrists seek to provide a medical diagnosis of individuals by an assessment of symptoms , signs and impairment associated with particular types of mental disorder.

Other mental health professionals, such as clinical psychologists, may or may not apply the same diagnostic categories to their clinical formulation of a client's difficulties and circumstances. Routine diagnostic practice in mental health services typically involves an interview known as a mental status examination , where evaluations are made of appearance and behavior, self-reported symptoms, mental health history, and current life circumstances.

The views of other professionals, relatives or other third parties may be taken into account. A physical examination to check for ill health or the effects of medications or other drugs may be conducted. Psychological testing is sometimes used via paper-and-pen or computerized questionnaires, which may include algorithms based on ticking off standardized diagnostic criteria, and in rare specialist cases neuroimaging tests may be requested, but such methods are more commonly found in research studies than routine clinical practice.

Time and budgetary constraints often limit practicing psychiatrists from conducting more thorough diagnostic evaluations. On the other hand, a person may have several different difficulties only some of which meet the criteria for being diagnosed. There may be specific problems with accurate diagnosis in developing countries. So, according to Caplan, getting a psychiatric diagnosis and label often stands in the way of recovery. In , psychiatrist Allen Frances wrote a paper entitled "The New Crisis of Confidence in Psychiatric Diagnosis", which said that "psychiatric diagnosis… still relies exclusively on fallible subjective judgments rather than objective biological tests.

Kirk have "been accusing psychiatry of engaging in the systematic medicalization of normality. The WHO report "Prevention of Mental Disorders" stated that "Prevention of these disorders is obviously one of the most effective ways to reduce the [disease] burden. Parenting may affect the child's mental health, and evidence suggests that helping parents to be more effective with their children can address mental health needs.

Universal prevention aimed at a population that has no increased risk for developing a mental disorder, such as school programs or mass media campaigns need very high numbers of people to show effect sometimes known as the "power" problem. Approaches to overcome this are 1 focus on high-incidence groups e.

Treatment and support for mental disorders is provided in psychiatric hospitals , clinics or a range of community mental health services. In some countries services are increasingly based on a recovery approach , intended to support individual's personal journey to gain the kind of life they want. There are a range of different types of treatment and what is most suitable depends on the disorder and the individual. Many things have been found to help at least some people, and a placebo effect may play a role in any intervention or medication. In a minority of cases, individuals may be treated against their will, which can cause particular difficulties depending on how it is carried out and perceived.

Compulsory treatment while in the community versus non-compulsory treatment does not appear to make much of a difference except by maybe decreasing victimization. Lifestyle strategies, including dietary changes, exercise and quit smoking may be of benefit. There is also a wide range of psychotherapists including family therapy , counselors , and public health professionals. In addition, there are peer support roles where personal experience of similar issues is the primary source of expertise.

A major option for many mental disorders is psychotherapy. There are several main types. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT is widely used and is based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder. Psychoanalysis , addressing underlying psychic conflicts and defenses, has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use.

Systemic therapy or family therapy is sometimes used, addressing a network of significant others as well as an individual. Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. There are a number of specific therapies used for particular disorders, which may be offshoots or hybrids of the above types. Mental health professionals often employ an eclectic or integrative approach. Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship , and there may be problems with trust , confidentiality and engagement.

A major option for many mental disorders is psychiatric medication and there are several main groups. Antidepressants are used for the treatment of clinical depression , as well as often for anxiety and a range of other disorders. Anxiolytics including sedatives are used for anxiety disorders and related problems such as insomnia. Mood stabilizers are used primarily in bipolar disorder. Antipsychotics are used for psychotic disorders, notably for positive symptoms in schizophrenia , and also increasingly for a range of other disorders. Stimulants are commonly used, notably for ADHD.

Despite the different conventional names of the drug groups, there may be considerable overlap in the disorders for which they are actually indicated, and there may also be off-label use of medications. There can be problems with adverse effects of medication and adherence to them, and there is also criticism of pharmaceutical marketing and professional conflicts of interest. Electroconvulsive therapy ECT is sometimes used in severe cases when other interventions for severe intractable depression have failed.

Psychosurgery is considered experimental but is advocated by some neurologists in certain rare cases. Counseling professional and co-counseling between peers may be used. Psychoeducation programs may provide people with the information to understand and manage their problems. Creative therapies are sometimes used, including music therapy , art therapy or drama therapy.

Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures are often used, including peer support, self-help groups for mental health and supported housing or supported employment including social firms. Some advocate dietary supplements. Reasonable accommodations adjustments and supports might be put in place to help an individual cope and succeed in environments despite potential disability related to mental health problems.

This could include an emotional support animal or specifically trained psychiatric service dog. Mental disorders are common. Worldwide, more than one in three people in most countries report sufficient criteria for at least one at some point in their life. A review of anxiety disorder surveys in different countries found average lifetime prevalence estimates of In the United States the frequency of disorder is: anxiety disorder A cross-Europe study found that approximately one in four people reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders assessed, which included mood disorders Approximately one in ten met criteria within a month period.

Women and younger people of either gender showed more cases of disorder. An international review of studies on the prevalence of schizophrenia found an average median figure of 0. Studies of the prevalence of personality disorders PDs have been fewer and smaller-scale, but one broad Norwegian survey found a five-year prevalence of almost 1 in 7 Rates for specific disorders ranged from 0. While rates of psychological disorders are often the same for men and women, women tend to have a higher rate of depression.

Each year 73 million women are affected by major depression, and suicide is ranked 7th as the cause of death for women between the ages of 20— Depressive disorders account for close to Ancient civilizations described and treated a number of mental disorders. Mental illnesses were well known in ancient Mesopotamia , [] where diseases and mental disorders were believed to be caused by specific deities.

Mental disorders were described, and treatments developed, in Persia, Arabia and in the medieval Islamic world. Conceptions of madness in the Middle Ages in Christian Europe were a mixture of the divine, diabolical, magical and humoral and transcendental. While not every witch and sorcerer accused were mentally ill, all mentally ill were considered to be witches or sorcerers.

By the end of the 17th century and into the Enlightenment , madness was increasingly seen as an organic physical phenomenon with no connection to the soul or moral responsibility. Asylum care was often harsh and treated people like wild animals, but towards the end of the 18th century a moral treatment movement gradually developed. Clear descriptions of some syndromes may be rare prior to the 19th century. Industrialization and population growth led to a massive expansion of the number and size of insane asylums in every Western country in the 19th century.


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Numerous different classification schemes and diagnostic terms were developed by different authorities, and the term psychiatry was coined , though medical superintendents were still known as alienists. The turn of the 20th century saw the development of psychoanalysis, which would later come to the fore, along with Kraepelin 's classification scheme. Asylum "inmates" were increasingly referred to as "patients", and asylums renamed as hospitals. Early in the 20th century in the United States, a mental hygiene movement developed, aiming to prevent mental disorders.

Clinical psychology and social work developed as professions. World War I saw a massive increase of conditions that came to be termed " shell shock ". World War II saw the development in the U. The term stress , having emerged from endocrinology work in the s, was increasingly applied to mental disorders. Electroconvulsive therapy , insulin shock therapy , lobotomies and the " neuroleptic " chlorpromazine came to be used by mid-century. In the s there were many challenges to the concept of mental illness itself.

These challenges came from psychiatrists like Thomas Szasz who argued that mental illness was a myth used to disguise moral conflicts; from sociologists such as Erving Goffman who said that mental illness was merely another example of how society labels and controls non-conformists; from behavioral psychologists who challenged psychiatry's fundamental reliance on unobservable phenomena; and from gay rights activists who criticised the APA's listing of homosexuality as a mental disorder.

A study published in Science by Rosenhan received much publicity and was viewed as an attack on the efficacy of psychiatric diagnosis. Deinstitutionalization gradually occurred in the West, with isolated psychiatric hospitals being closed down in favor of community mental health services.

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Other kinds of psychiatric medication gradually came into use, such as "psychic energizers" later antidepressants and lithium. Benzodiazepines gained widespread use in the s for anxiety and depression, until dependency problems curtailed their popularity. Advances in neuroscience , genetics and psychology led to new research agendas. Cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychotherapies developed.

The DSM and then ICD adopted new criteria-based classifications, and the number of "official" diagnoses saw a large expansion. Through the s, new SSRI -type antidepressants became some of the most widely prescribed drugs in the world, as later did antipsychotics. Also during the s, a recovery approach developed.

Different societies or cultures , even different individuals in a subculture , can disagree as to what constitutes optimal versus pathological biological and psychological functioning. Research has demonstrated that cultures vary in the relative importance placed on, for example, happiness, autonomy, or social relationships for pleasure.

Likewise, the fact that a behavior pattern is valued, accepted, encouraged, or even statistically normative in a culture does not necessarily mean that it is conducive to optimal psychological functioning. People in all cultures find some behaviors bizarre or even incomprehensible. But just what they feel is bizarre or incomprehensible is ambiguous and subjective. The process by which conditions and difficulties come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors and other health professionals, is known as medicalization or pathologization.

Religious , spiritual , or transpersonal experiences and beliefs meet many criteria of delusional or psychotic disorders. Those with schizophrenia commonly report some type of religious delusion, [] [] [] and religion itself may be a trigger for schizophrenia. Controversy has often surrounded psychiatry, and the term anti-psychiatry was coined by psychiatrist David Cooper in The anti-psychiatry message is that psychiatric treatments are ultimately more damaging than helpful to patients, and psychiatry's history involves what may now be seen as dangerous treatments.

Lobotomy was another practice that was ultimately seen as too invasive and brutal. Diazepam and other sedatives were sometimes over-prescribed, which led to an epidemic of dependence. There was also concern about the large increase in prescribing psychiatric drugs for children.

Some charismatic psychiatrists came to personify the movement against psychiatry. The most influential of these was R. Laing who wrote a series of best-selling books, including The Divided Self. Some ex-patient groups have become militantly anti-psychiatric, often referring to themselves as " survivors ". Activists campaign for improved mental health services and for more involvement and empowerment within mental health services, policies and wider society.

There is also a carers rights movement of people who help and support people with mental health conditions, who may be relatives, and who often work in difficult and time-consuming circumstances with little acknowledgement and without pay. An anti-psychiatry movement fundamentally challenges mainstream psychiatric theory and practice, including in some cases asserting that psychiatric concepts and diagnoses of 'mental illness' are neither real nor useful. Alternatively, a movement for global mental health has emerged, defined as 'the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving mental health and achieving equity in mental health for all people worldwide'.

Opponents argue that even when diagnostic criteria are used across different cultures, it does not mean that the underlying constructs have validity within those cultures, as even reliable application can prove only consistency, not legitimacy. Cross-cultural psychiatrist Arthur Kleinman contends that the Western bias is ironically illustrated in the introduction of cultural factors to the DSM-IV.

Disorders or concepts from non-Western or non-mainstream cultures are described as "culture-bound", whereas standard psychiatric diagnoses are given no cultural qualification whatsoever, revealing to Kleinman an underlying assumption that Western cultural phenomena are universal. Common responses included both disappointment over the large number of documented non-Western mental disorders still left out and frustration that even those included are often misinterpreted or misrepresented. Many mainstream psychiatrists are dissatisfied with the new culture-bound diagnoses, although for partly different reasons.

Robert Spitzer , a lead architect of the DSM-III , has argued that adding cultural formulations was an attempt to appease cultural critics, and has stated that they lack any scientific rationale or support. Spitzer also posits that the new culture-bound diagnoses are rarely used, maintaining that the standard diagnoses apply regardless of the culture involved.

In general, mainstream psychiatric opinion remains that if a diagnostic category is valid, cross-cultural factors are either irrelevant or are significant only to specific symptom presentations. Clinical conceptions of mental illness also overlap with personal and cultural values in the domain of morality , so much so that it is sometimes argued that separating the two is impossible without fundamentally redefining the essence of being a particular person in a society. Such approaches, along with cross-cultural and " heretical " psychologies centered on alternative cultural and ethnic and race-based identities and experiences, stand in contrast to the mainstream psychiatric community's alleged avoidance of any explicit involvement with either morality or culture.

Three quarters of countries around the world have mental health legislation. Compulsory admission to mental health facilities also known as involuntary commitment is a controversial topic. It can impinge on personal liberty and the right to choose, and carry the risk of abuse for political, social and other reasons; yet it can potentially prevent harm to self and others, and assist some people in attaining their right to healthcare when they may be unable to decide in their own interests.

All human rights oriented mental health laws require proof of the presence of a mental disorder as defined by internationally accepted standards, but the type and severity of disorder that counts can vary in different jurisdictions. The two most often utilized grounds for involuntary admission are said to be serious likelihood of immediate or imminent danger to self or others, and the need for treatment. Applications for someone to be involuntarily admitted usually come from a mental health practitioner, a family member, a close relative, or a guardian. Human-rights-oriented laws usually stipulate that independent medical practitioners or other accredited mental health practitioners must examine the patient separately and that there should be regular, time-bound review by an independent review body.

In order for involuntary treatment to be administered by force if necessary , it should be shown that an individual lacks the mental capacity for informed consent i. Legal challenges in some areas have resulted in supreme court decisions that a person does not have to agree with a psychiatrist's characterization of the issues as constituting an "illness", nor agree with a psychiatrist's conviction in medication, but only recognize the issues and the information about treatment options.

Proxy consent also known as surrogate or substituted decision-making may be transferred to a personal representative, a family member or a legally appointed guardian. Moreover, patients may be able to make, when they are considered well, an advance directive stipulating how they wish to be treated should they be deemed to lack mental capacity in future. Involuntary treatment laws are increasingly extended to those living in the community, for example outpatient commitment laws known by different names are used in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and most of the United States.

The World Health Organization reports that in many instances national mental health legislation takes away the rights of persons with mental disorders rather than protecting rights, and is often outdated. In , the UN formally agreed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of disabled people, including those with psychosocial disabilities.

Mental health? It’s in the mind and the body, too

The term insanity , sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for mental illness, is often used technically as a legal term. The insanity defense may be used in a legal trial known as the mental disorder defence in some countries. The social stigma associated with mental disorders is a widespread problem. The US Surgeon General stated in that: "Powerful and pervasive, stigma prevents people from acknowledging their own mental health problems, much less disclosing them to others. Employment discrimination is reported to play a significant part in the high rate of unemployment among those with a diagnosis of mental illness.

Efforts are being undertaken worldwide to eliminate the stigma of mental illness, [] although the methods and outcomes used have sometimes been criticized. Media coverage of mental illness comprises predominantly negative and pejorative depictions, for example, of incompetence, violence or criminality, with far less coverage of positive issues such as accomplishments or human rights issues.

The general public have been found to hold a strong stereotype of dangerousness and desire for social distance from individuals described as mentally ill. Recent depictions in media have included leading characters successfully living with and managing a mental illness, including in bipolar disorder in Homeland and posttraumatic stress disorder in Iron Man 3 Despite public or media opinion, national studies have indicated that severe mental illness does not independently predict future violent behavior, on average, and is not a leading cause of violence in society.

There is a statistical association with various factors that do relate to violence in anyone , such as substance abuse and various personal, social and economic factors. In fact, findings consistently indicate that it is many times more likely that people diagnosed with a serious mental illness living in the community will be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violence. However, there are some specific diagnoses, such as childhood conduct disorder or adult antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy , which are defined by, or are inherently associated with, conduct problems and violence.

There are conflicting findings about the extent to which certain specific symptoms, notably some kinds of psychosis hallucinations or delusions that can occur in disorders such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder or mood disorder, are linked to an increased risk of serious violence on average. The mediating factors of violent acts, however, are most consistently found to be mainly socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as being young, male, of lower socioeconomic status and, in particular, substance abuse including alcoholism to which some people may be particularly vulnerable.

High-profile cases have led to fears that serious crimes, such as homicide, have increased due to deinstitutionalization, but the evidence does not support this conclusion. The recognition and understanding of mental health conditions have changed over time and across cultures and there are still variations in definition, assessment and classification , although standard guideline criteria are widely used.

In many cases, there appears to be a continuum between mental health and mental illness, making diagnosis complex. Psychopathology in non-human primates has been studied since the midth century. Over 20 behavioral patterns in captive chimpanzees have been documented as statistically abnormal for frequency, severity or oddness—some of which have also been observed in the wild.

Captive great apes show gross behavioral abnormalities such as stereotypy of movements, self-mutilation , disturbed emotional reactions mainly fear or aggression towards companions, lack of species-typical communications, and generalized learned helplessness. In some cases such behaviors are hypothesized to be equivalent to symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders in humans such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Concepts of antisocial, borderline and schizoid personality disorders have also been applied to non-human great apes.

The risk of anthropomorphism is often raised with regard to such comparisons, and assessment of non-human animals cannot incorporate evidence from linguistic communication. However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors—including physiological responses and homologous facial displays and acoustic utterances—to neurochemical studies.

It is pointed out that human psychiatric classification is often based on statistical description and judgment of behaviors especially when speech or language is impaired and that the use of verbal self-report is itself problematic and unreliable. Psychopathology has generally been traced, at least in captivity, to adverse rearing conditions such as early separation of infants from mothers; early sensory deprivation; and extended periods of social isolation.

Studies have also indicated individual variation in temperament, such as sociability or impulsiveness. Particular causes of problems in captivity have included integration of strangers into existing groups and a lack of individual space, in which context some pathological behaviors have also been seen as coping mechanisms.

Remedial interventions have included careful individually tailored re-socialization programs, behavior therapy , environment enrichment, and on rare occasions psychiatric drugs. Laboratory researchers sometimes try to develop animal models of human mental disorders, including by inducing or treating symptoms in animals through genetic, neurological, chemical or behavioral manipulation, [] [] but this has been criticized on empirical grounds [] and opposed on animal rights grounds.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Classification of mental disorders. Main article: Causes of mental disorders. Main article: Psychiatric genetics. Main article: Prevention of mental disorders. Main articles: Treatment of mental disorders , Services for mental disorders , and Mental health professional. Main article: Prevalence of mental disorders. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of mental disorders. See also: Psychology of religion. See also: Depression and culture. See also: Mental health law. Further information: Schizophrenogenic parents , Refrigerator mother , and Mentalism discrimination.

Main article: Mental disorders in art and literature. Main article: Mental health. Main article: Animal psychopathology. National Institute of Mental Health. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 28 April Medline Plus. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 10 June What is Mental Disorder? OUP Oxford. World Health Organization.

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